Data Structures and Algorithms

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Concepts of data structures: tables and linked lists

Now that you have your first notions about algorithmic complexity, it’s time to introduce the concept of data structure that you were made to glimpse in the introduction. Just like the first part, we will not do anything complicated at the moment, but the bases presented here will be useful for the continuation of the course.

We will focus on two extremely common structures: lists (simply linked) and tables .

Definition

The basic principle of a data structure is to store elements that the programmer wants to access later. The different uses of the data structure of operations are called .

For example, a common operation is reading : we want to retrieve an element stored in the structure. There are many other operations, such as inserting , adding a new element to the data structure, or deleting it , removing it.

All data structures do not allow the same operations, and above all they do not always have the same cost . For example, on some structures, it is very fast to add an element, in others it is difficult and it may require a complete reorganization. The cost of data structures can be measured quite finely, but what interests us in this course is the complexity : for each data structure used, we will try to have a good idea of ​​the complexity of the operations that the we perform.

This knowledge of costs has two advantages: when we are given an algorithm using a particular data structure, we need to know the cost (complexity) of the operations performed to evaluate the overall complexity of the algorithm. But most importantly, and this is probably the most interesting aspect, when we have an idea of ​​the operations that we need for an algorithm, we can choose the most appropriate data structure (the one for which these operations are the least expensive).

In practice, most people use fairly simple algorithms (which are not based on sophisticated manipulations), where the only choice of the right data structure can make a difference in performance. Knowing your data structures and knowing how to make a choice plays a very important role for the programmer.

Paintings

The table is probably the most common data structure, at least in derived languages ​​or inspired by the C language .

The principle of a table is very simple: we store the elements in boxes, each box being labeled with a number (usually called index ). To access a particular element of a table, give its index.

The indices are consecutive integers, and we will consider that they start at 0, as in most programming languages. The first element is therefore index 0, the second index 1, etc. (watch out for the shift) In particular, if nthe size of the array is the last element is at the index n-1. Requesting access to an index that does not exist causes an error.

Data Structures and Algorithms

We consider that the size of a table is always known (the programmer had to know it when he asked for the creation of the table, and then it is enough to keep it).

The time of creation of the array depends on the languages. In general, the creation function puts in each box a default value, and its execution time is then proportional to the length of the array (so in complexity O (N) if N is the size of the array). However, it is possible in some languages ​​to create “uninitialized” tables (with unknown values ​​for each box) more quickly. It is a practice that can be dangerous because sometimes we have values ​​that make no sense in our table. We will consider here that all the tables are initialized as soon as they are created, and therefore that it is always in O (N).

lists

The list is an extremely used data structure. In particular, it played a major role in the Lisp language and remains very present in the many languages ​​that have inspired it.

Note: To correctly describe a list, I am forced to move slightly away from pure algorithmic considerations, to detail a little more precisely how programming languages ​​manage data structures. I will use here an independent description of the programming language: we will speak of cells having one or more fields . A cell is simply a set of boxes that can store data, and which is accessed by name (which is called field name , such as form fields for example). For example, we can describe a structure that stores a person’s address and number as a three-field cell nom.adresseand téléphone.

Depending on your language, the cells will have different shapes: structin C, objects in Java, etc. : It’s up to you to choose the translation you like most. We will not go into low level details about the memory organization either, but it is good to have a common model to discuss.

It will be further considered that the creation (and destruction) of a cell (if it has a fixed number of fields), as well as the reading or the modification of a field, is done in constant time.

Let’s come to the definition of a list. A list is:

  • either the empty list;

  • a two-field cell, a field têtecontaining an element, and a field queuecontaining the address of another list.

In other words, a list is either empty or an element followed by a list . This definition is fun because it is recursive : it uses the word “list”. The definition of a list uses the definition of a list! But, just as recursive programs do not all loop infinitely, this definition is not a vicious circle, and it is quite correct (you’ll see it in use).

A list can be the empty list (0 elements), or an element followed by the empty list (1 element), or an element followed by an element followed by the empty list (2 elements), and so on.

a list of 3 elements

We will say that the element in the field têteis the head of the list, and that the list in the field queueis its tail. The queue of a list contains all the elements of the list, except the first one. For example, the tail of the list [1; 2; 3]is [2; 3]. Of course, the empty list has neither tail nor head: trying to access one of these fields causes an error.

There are actually many variations of this structure. I have described here the simplest, which is also called simply linked list because cells contain only, in addition to one element, an arrow to the next (we imagine that these arrows form a chain). Other structures are useful in particular cases (for example we can put two arrows per cell, one to the next element, and one to the previous element, it is the principle of the doubly linked list ), but that This is the most common and the most useful.

Implementation : the representation of chained lists depends very much on programming languages. In functional languages, this type is already defined (for example in Caml one notes []the empty list and tete::queuethe cell whose head is teteand the tail.In queueC, one must build it oneself.We use a very classical representation: a structure for the cells, and the pointer NULLfor the empty list:

struct list
{
int val;
struct list *next;
};
typedef struct list List;

The lists are then represented as pointers to a cell:

List *une_liste;

As in C, we must allocate and free the memory by hand, we will also need a function that frees all the cells of a list:

void free_list(List *list)
{
while (list != NULL) { /* tant que la liste n’est pas vide */
List *cell = list;
list = list->next;
free(cell);
}
}

At each stage of the loop while, we store the head of the list in a variable cell, we advance in the list ( listbecomes the tail of the list), and we release cell. We have to use this intermediary variable, because if we started with free(list), then it list->nextwould be meaningless (since listit was erased) and we could not move past the list.

Add / remove, size, access to an item

Add / Remove

What is the easiest way to add or remove an item to a table or list?

For a list, these two operations are very simple as we consider only an addition (or a deletion) at the top of the list: to delete the head element, simply replace the list by its tail (which is the list of all the following items). To add an element at the top, just create a new cell, put this element in the field tête, and the start list in the field queue.

add an item to a list of 2 items

These two operations are done in constant time (the first is to read a field, and the second to create a cell), so their complexity is in O (1).

Note: Adding to the top of the list (that is, creating a new list from an item and an old list) is fundamental to list manipulation. It has a specific name, cons(read “consse”), which even gave rise to a verb (used only in computer science) in English, to cons . It is fundamental because in a way it is part of the definition of lists, which can be rephrased as either an empty list or a list cons.

Implementation: In languages ​​where lists already exist, it is extremely simple to define cons. For example in Caml:

let cons tete queue = tete::queue

Otherwise, you must use the type that you have defined yourself. In C, we must also take care of the memory allocation:

List *cons(int valeur, List *liste)
{
List *elem = malloc(sizeof(List));
if (NULL == elem)
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
elem->val = valeur;
elem->next = liste;
return elem;
}

For tables, the question is more delicate. The size of an array is fixed in advance, it is not possible to add elements (simply because there is not necessarily any available space in the memory, on the edges of the table, for to be able to enlarge it). The safe way to add one (or more) elements is to create a bigger table somewhere else, which contains enough room for all the old elements and the new one (s), and to copy the old elements into the new table, before adding the new ones. This method requires the creation of an array of size N + 1, then a copy of each element of the array, so it is in O (N) (where N is the size of the array before insertion), or linear. Similarly, the size of a table being fixed in advance,

Note: In some languages, it is possible to try to resize the tables on the spot in some cases, or to eliminate elements that are at the beginning or end of the table. This is still rather risky, and we will not consider these operations.

Cut

When it comes to calculating the size of the data structure, it is the table that has the beautiful role. Indeed, we consider that the size of an array is always known, so there are no calculations to do to obtain it: it is an operation in O (1).

For a list, we do not usually know the size of a list (especially if we have just added or removed many items at the top of this list). To calculate the size of a list, we apply the following algorithm:

  • if it is the empty list, its size is 0;

  • otherwise, we calculate the size of its tail, and we add 1.

Thus, we will go through the list until we reach the empty list, adding 1 for each element. This method works very well, but requires a complete path of the list, so is in O (N) (where N is the size of the list).

Remark: as for the tables, it would be possible to store the size of the lists in the structure itself, instead of having to calculate it each time: in addition to having têteand queue, one would add to each cell a field taillewhich would contain the size of the list. The problem of this method is that the operation consbecomes more expensive: when we create a new cell for the element to add, we must put the new element and the tail as before, but then we must access the first cell of the queue, to read the size N of the old list, to be able to put N + 1 in the fieldtailleof the new cell. It just adds a step (more precisely, two cell reads, an addition and a field initialization in addition), so the operation remains in O (1), but it still slows down the operation substantially, which is embarrassing when you use a lot cons. In practice, most people use a lot cons, and very rarely need the size of the list; this “optimization” is not interesting because it would slow down the program. Once again, we find the central idea, which is to choose its data structures according to the use we want to make, so that the most common operations are as fast as possible.

Access to an element

How to do if we want to recover for example the fifth element of our collection (list or table)? For a table, it’s simple: we ask the element of index 4 (pay attention to the shift), and we get it immediately. This operation is in O (1).

For a list, it is more difficult: when we have a list, we have direct access to the first cell, so we only know his head, and his tail; we can give quickly only the first element. But in fact, we can also have access to the second: it is the head of the queue of the list :Wizard:! And third: the head of the queue tail of the list. In fact, we look for the head of the tail of the tail of the tail of the tail of the list. Too easy.

Here is an algorithm to retrieve the index element from na list:

  • if n = 0(we ask the first element), return the element that is in the field tête;

  • otherwise, return the element that is in the index n-1to the list that is in the field queue.

You can notice that we directly consider our list as a cell: if the list is empty, we can not retrieve any element, so it is an error.

To access an item, you must go through the entire list to the desired position. To access the index element kyou have to do about koperations. What is the complexity of the operation? As explained in the first part, one has to be pessimistic and consider the complexity in the worst case: in the worst case, one looks for the last element of the list, so one has to go through it all. The operation is therefore linear, in O (N).

You have probably noticed the big difference between the problem of access to the firstelement, and access to “any” element. In a list, the first operation is in O (1) ( :Sun:) and the second in O (N) ( : '().

To differentiate them, computer scientists have a specific term to say “access to any element”: they speak of arbitrary access . Many data structures can access certain privileged elements very quickly, but are slower for arbitrary access. Tables have the property of having arbitrary access in constant time, which is rare and very useful in some cases.

Note: You may not know the term “arbitrary access”, but you may have already encountered its English equivalent, random access . Or, you never wondered, while fiddling with the RAM of your computer, what meant RAM: Random Access Memory, random access memory.

The problem of accessing a list is not limited to reading the element at a given position: you might also want to add or remove an element at this position. These algorithms are close to that of reading, and they too have a linear complexity.

A little anecdote the change made that was accepted by the author of the video game in question.to illustrate the importance of studying complexity: when we do not work on this tutorial, we sometimes play. Among these games, one of them had a loading time of 90 seconds when it was necessary to generate a new map of the world. A little surprised, and given that the source code of the game was available, we studied the faulty functionality. The game spent 88 seconds randomly accessing the items in a list! By transforming this list into a simple array, the loading has become almost instantaneous. : Ninja:The most curious can go to study

Concatenation, filtering

Concatenation

Let’s imagine that we have two groups of elements, stored in two different lists (or two tables), and that we want to bring them together. We want to build a structure that is in a way the “sum” of the two starting structures. This operation is called “concatenation” (it comes from Latin to “chain together”).

For paintings, it’s quite easy: if the first painting is A, and the second B, and we note L the size of A and L ‘(read “L prime”) the size of B, we create an array of size L + L ‘, where we copy all the elements of A, then all the elements of B. This requires L + L copies (and the creation of L + L’ boxes): the operation is in O (L + L ‘).

concatenation of tables

Note: here I gave the complexity according to two variables, L and L ‘. I had previously defined complexity as dependent on a single variable, but it is a special case. The complexity of an algorithm can depend on all the parameters on which the algorithm depends, and not just one. Moreover, complexity makes sense only when the variables we use to express it are well defined: saying O (N3) is not enough, we must make sure that everyone understands what the variable N (although in general, it is obvious and left implicit).

For a list, the situation is a little different: as we can easily add an item at the top of the list, we can also add a sequence of elements. So just add all the elements of A at the top of list B. This amounts to making a copy of A before B. You can already guess (the algorithm will be specified later) that as we add L (the size of A) elements at the top of B, the complexity will be in O (L).

concatenation of lists

Here is a more detailed algorithm that concatenates A and B:

  • if it is empty, we have nothing to do: we return the second list, B;

  • if it’s a cell, we proceed in two stages:

    • we calculate the concatenation of its tail with B,

    • we add the head to this result;

    We can summarize this by cons(tete(A), concat(queue(A), B)).

concatenation of lists, detail

Again, this function is recursive, I invite you to check that it works well by implementing it yourself in your preferred language. What is its complexity? We will call the function concatonce on A, then on queue(A), then on queue(queue(A)), etc., until we reach the empty list. In other words, we will have called as concatmany times as there Aare elements. The rest of the operations (performed at each call of concat) is a cons(and the reading of the head), so in O (1). To make L (where L is the size of A) times an operation in O (1), ie L times a operation in constant time, puts a time proportional to L. It is in O (L) .

Note: with this algorithm, we copy (by cons) each cell in list A: list B is left unchanged, but we created L cells. You may have noticed that another way of doing things would be possible: we could take the last arrow of A (the one pointing to the empty list) directly, and modify it to point it to the first cell of B. This method has the advantage of not requesting copy of A’s cells, but also a major disadvantage: it modifies list A. If you had a variable that designated A before the operation, it now refers to concat(A, B). List A, in a way, was “destroyed”.

concatenation of lists, destructive algorithm

This behavior, which is called an edge effect , can give rise to bugs if you are not careful (for example, if you think you still have access to A, when in fact you are handling concat(A, B)). If you eliminate the negligence of the programmer (because you are sure that you , you do not make such mistakes – haha!), It can still pose tricky problems in the case of multi-threaded applications for example (a thread calculates the number of items in your list, but just before it uses it to do something, another thread silently modifies the list by adding a lot of items at the end; by your first thread is no longer valid: boom!).

Overall, the presented algorithm, which has the property of not modifying the starting lists A and B, is much safer and more convenient to use. There are other formulations, but in any case they all have the same complexity.

You may note that the concatenation of two lists does not depend on the size of the second list, which is kept identically, but only of the first one. For arrays, concatenation depends on both. This is a difference that can be very important if you want to concatenate very often small lists (or small tables) to a large list (or a large table). In the case of paintings, this operation will be very expensive since you will have to copy the big painting each time. In practice, it is therefore quite rare to concatenate tables, while the operation is more common for lists.

filtering

Here is a last operation that occurs regularly when you manipulate data: select a part of them. For example “among the people I know, I want the name of all those who speak German”. In computer science, we will represent the question “does he speak German or not?” by a function: it takes a person in parameter, and returns true(true) if it speaks German, false(false) otherwise. I call these functions “choice functions” (sometimes called predicates ). We want to perform a filtering operation: Given a collection (list or array) containing elements, and a function of choice on these elements, you want to recover only the elements for which the choice function returns true.

If we use tables (especially if we want the results of filtering to be stored in a table), we are faced with a problem: we do not know a priori what will be the number of elements to return. You do not know a priori, without thinking or asking them the question, how many of your acquaintances speak German. There are many possibilities. I’ll mention one for now (I’ll talk about a second then, and anyway if you thought of another, it’s fine).

The first possibility is to start from a size 0 (empty, what) table, enlarging it every time you find a new Germanist in your knowledge. As we have seen, enlarging a table usually requires as many copies as there are boxes. In the first person found, you will not make any copies (create a size 1 chart to put the person). In the second, you will make a copy (the first person found). In the third, you will make 2 recopies. In the end, if the filtered array has K elements, it will have been built by doing 0, then 1, then 2, …, then K-1 copying, ie 0 + 1 + 2 + … + (K-1 ) recopies in total, that is to say approximately K2 / 2 recopies. In the worst case, K equals N, the size of the starting array ( allyour knowledge speaks German!), and you have about N2 / 2 operations: this algorithm is in O (N2).

We can obtain an interesting algorithm for the lists by applying exactly this method, but by using lists instead of tables: we start with an empty list, and for each interesting element (that is to say which makes refer trueto the choice function), we add it to the top of the list (by one cons). Each consis in O (1), and in the end we make it to the maximum N. The algorithm using a list is therefore in O (N). It is quite striking that by using exactly the same algorithm, very different complexities can be achieved simply by changing the data structure. This illustrates the fact that the choice of structures is important, and that the programmer must be aware of them.

To save the honor of the tables, it is necessary to present another algorithm with a complexity less bad than O (N2). We can simply browse through our collection of elements to be filtered a first time to count the number of interesting elements, create an array of this size, then browse it a second time by adding the interesting elements in the table. We do two courses, but the number of operations remains proportional to N, so this algorithm is indeed in O (N). I have probably said many times that we would only be interested in complexity, but it is time to make an exception (because if we never did, it would not be funny): this algorithm requires two paths of the starting collection, so even if it has the same complexity as the algorithm using lists, it is much less interesting, and in particular it will generally be slower. It is also a little less resistant to various odd situations that could arise: if the starting table is changed between the two courses, this can be problematic; moreover, the function of choice will be called twice by element instead of one, which can be very annoying if it does odd things (for example if it stores the interesting elements by refusing the elements already met). These are problems that can be remedied, but all of this involves additional complications, and possibly performance degradation. if the starting table is changed between the two courses, this can be problematic; moreover, the function of choice will be called twice by element instead of one, which can be very annoying if it does odd things (for example if it stores the interesting elements by refusing the elements already met). These are problems that can be remedied, but all of this involves additional complications, and possibly performance degradation. if the starting table is changed between the two courses, this can be problematic; moreover, the function of choice will be called twice by element instead of one, which can be very annoying if it does odd things (for example if it stores the interesting elements by refusing the elements already met). These are problems that can be remedied, but all of this involves additional complications, and possibly performance degradation.

Synthesis

operations

surgery

board

listing

arbitrary access

O (1)

We)

adding

We)

O (1)

cut

O (1)

We)

concatenation

O (n + m)

We)

filtering

We) : Uh:

We)

An overview of these two data structures can be found: the list is a structure to which it is very easy to add or remove (for example filtering) elements, while the table is very efficient when the number of elements does not change and we want arbitrary access.

Depending on the situation, you will need to use one or the other instead. In general, it is good to use a list when you have no idea of ​​the exact number of items you will handle (for example, if you are filtering, or plan to add items regularly). On the other hand, you do not have arbitrary access: you can always save certain elements of the list in separate variables if you need them very often, but you can not pick up specific elements in the middle of the list directly. : the only method of access is the route of all the elements (or at least all the elements at the beginning of the list: you can stop the course along the way).

It can be difficult at first to know which data structure to choose in a particular case. Even if you have made a choice, stay tuned for the operations you are doing. For example, if you find yourself often asking for the size of a list, or conversely trying to concatenate tables frequently, it may be time to change your mind. Some languages ​​offer facilities for manipulating arrays, not for lists (which must be built by hand, for example in C): if you do not have a library for your convenience, choose the structure that is easy to use (in many cases it is possible to mimic what one would do naturally with a list by clumsily using a table).

conversions

Finally, we must know that the choice of data structures, it is not for the whole life. Data structures are just a way of storing information, and just as you may from time to time rearrange your office or your home, it’s possible to change your organization. that is, moving from one data structure to another, retaining the stored information.

Exercise: Write a function that converts a list into an array, and a function that converts an array into a list. Both functions must be in O (N).

Moving from one data structure to another can be a very good idea if your program goes through several well-separated phases that use very different operations.

For example, you can start your program by gathering information (many additions of elements, concatenations, filtering to eliminate bad elements, etc.), followed by a second half of the heavy processing program. information collected (with routes in all directions, many arbitrary access, all without adding or removing elements). In this case, it is quite natural to use a list initially, and to convert it at the beginning of the second phase into a table. You can combine the benefits of both structures for your program.

Obviously, the conversion has a cost, and is therefore only interesting if you expect to gain a lot of performance by doing it. No need to go from one structure to another without stopping, doing very little every time. Not all programs are cut into such distinct phases and the choices will sometimes be quite delicate. Again, it’s up to you to guess what’s best, and then test. Feel free to try several different configurations to see what works best.

You will see later in the course other structures, with different profiles, which may be useful for intermediate cases. In particular, there are hybrid structures that allow easy access to a particular element (a little less quickly than with a table, but much more than with a simple list), but also add or remove elements (a little less quickly than at the top of the list, but much more than with a simple table). However, these structures are usually more complicated than lists and tables.

Watch out for ugly languages :Zorro:

Once you have read this chapter, you have (perhaps) understood all the differences between arbitrary access to O (1) and linear access to O (N), and you are about to make a massacre in your favorite programming language: “I’ll be able to index two billion extra pages a day!”

Unfortunately, it happens that some languages ​​do not work exactly as I described here. Instead of having highly specialized data structures, such as lists and tables, they prefer data that behave “not too badly” on most common operations (or rather that language designers have found to be the most common ones). ), at the cost of being complicated and unknown data structures, and sometimes behaving much worse than you expected. The problem is that these surprise structures also have the annoying habit of taking innocent names as “lists” or “tables”.

For example, the “lists” of Python are actually strange tables, and the “tables” of PHP are not tables at all (you should have known it by noting that they propose operations “add at the beginning” , “add at the end”, “remove at the beginning”, etc.). Other languages, often so-called “scripting languages”, have such cavalier policies on data structures.

Race result, always be wary before using a data structure. Try to find out about the algorithmic complexity of the operations you are interested in to see if this is what you expect. On some algorithms, going from O (1) to O (N) for an operation can be very painful!

There is a method to identify “risk data structures”, that is, those that are not quite real tables or lists, but disguised hybrid data structures: their interface. We have seen, for example, that a table does not support element insertion very well: if the library of “tables” of your language proposes to insert and delete elements as if it were a natural operation, then this are probably not real paintings.

These “ugly” languages ​​(a more or less affectionate name for languages ​​that make the ‘simplicity’ of programming go before anything else, including the most elementary (algorithmic) efficiency management) sometimes make it possible to use the “true” data structures, in a specialized library. For example, Python lists offer arbitrary access, but it is better to use (possible) the “real” tables in the library array.

This is also something you will need to consider if you ever create your own library of data structures (yes, that happens!). If an operation is too expensive for your organization, you do not have to offer it to users (who might think they are encouraged to use it): a conversion function to a more traditional structure that effectively supports this operation will case. In general, it is important to clearly specify the expected complexity of the operations you offer to users.

Florence Nightingale Revolutionizes Nursing (feat. Minka Kelly) – Drunk History

Hello, my name is Paget Brewster. And today we will be discussing Florence Nightingale, the Mother of Modern Nursing. Wha–that was perfect! – Just rolled right off your tongue. – Did it not? – The mutter of mudern nursing. – Did I say “The mutter of mudern nursing”? – The mudder of muddern nurding. – Hi, I’m Paget Brewster, and today, we will be discussing Florence Nightingale, The Mutter of Modern Nursing. Okay, our story begins in 1830s England, which is the beginning of the Victorian Area.

  • Oh. – “Era.” – I’ve been there. – Shut it up now. – – Okay. So Florence Nightingale is the daughter of a very wealthy affluent family outside of London. And Florence is doing what everyone her age is doing. She’s a teenager and her mother says, Oh, this is so great. You’re just gonna study all this stuff. And then you’re gonna marry rich ’cause you’re rich, and you’re gonna have kids. And Florence is like, Ugh. I don’t think I want that at all. In fact, I like nursing. I like fixing people and helping people. And maybe I’m a weirdo, I don’t know.

And she started thinking, Oh, my God. Maybe God has chosen me for something greater than just being a rich lady. So she tells her parents, I don’t want to run a house. I just want to be a nurse. She wants to be a nurse, but nursing is not a profession. And at the age of 24, she leaves the house and starts interning at the Harley Street hospital in London. And in 1853, the War of Crimea breaks out. So– – Have you ever been in that river? – Huh? – “Cry me a” river? You never been there? – Oh, me. Oh, my God. – – Oh, God. Why do I want to kick you? – I get that. – I like you. Anyway. In 1854, the Secretary of War, Sidney Herbert writes a letter to Florence Nightingale saying, Florence, uh, you’re a great nurse.

I’ve heard about your work at the–at the something hospital I already forgot the name of. – Is that Harley? – Harley Street hospital. That’s right. I need you to go get a team of nurses together and go and help out our military doctors. So Florence was like, Yep, I’m on board. So Florence gathers together 38 nurses. And they go to the Scutari Barracks Hospital in Constantinople, which is a piece of shit. It was rats and lice. It’s not even a hospital; it’s a barracks. So they show up, and the male doctors, they flip the out. They’re like, these broads. We don’t need any chicks here. God damn it. This sucks. – Would you like me to help you? – Yes, please, Derek. You broke it! That’s pretty manly. Thank you. Gi– Don’t you– Give me my booze, bitch! All right, you’re in for it now.

So the doctor’s pissed off, and Florence is like, Yeah-yeah-yeah-yeah, I get that. It’s never happened before in history, but I’m here now, my ladies are here now. Florence and her nurses are shocked at the conditions, but they believe in Florence, and they’re like, All right. We’re gonna do whatever she says. Let’s go. Let’s clean this up. Two days later, thousands of soldiers injured from the Battle of Inkerman are brought into the barracks hospital. This was 3,000 soldiers laying on straw pallets. They are covered in their own excrement. They are bleeding. So the doctors are like, Oh, shit. it, we need your help. She ends up being known as the lady with the lamp, because it was this British woman there in Crimea, holding a lamp and visiting soldiers.

But one night, while she was changing the dressing of a man who had had an arm amputation, an army doctor walked in. And the man was naked. – But why? – Because they had no resources. And the doctor said to Florence, The are you doing? His dick is out. And Florence was like, you. His arm’s infected. – Holding for plane. – Oh, my God, we’re holding for a plane. Don’t kick me. – I have a twitch. – I am not a fan of this. I thought you were a gentleman. – Florence Nightingale. I thought you liked– – Oh, I’m a fan of Florence Nightingale, not you.

You ready? – – Shut up! I’m gonna kick you in the nuts! Bring your nuts closer so I can kick the– ’cause I’m tired. – – So all of these soldiers are amazed this lady with a lamp was protecting them. And the soldiers were saying to each other, This is the only person that’s cared about us. And Florence and her nurses have done everything they can do. Unfortunately, in the four months that they are first there, 4,777 soldiers die. And Florence says, I’m so angry. I’m so angry we lost so many men. And I need to find out why we failed. So the Crimean War ends in 1856. And Florence gets back to England. And she is awarded a $250,000 war fund dispensation gift from Queen Victoria. But Queen Victoria says, What happened in Crimea? And Florence says, I don’t know. It was bad. And I think I noticed a trend. And I’m gonna have to think about this. She is also really sick. She has the Crimean flu. I mean, bad, coughing, sputum. – What’s sputum? – Sputum’s an old term for mucus.

  • Too much informashe. – “Informashe”? – – I will not accept that from you. – Crimea river. – Shut up. you. I’m drunk. So… Florence goes back to England and just goes to her bed. She’s so ill that she stays in bed for 11 years. – What? – And it–yes. In those 11 years, she starts studying all of her notes from Constantinople. And she’s like, I know something was wrong here. And she’s building graphs. And she starts seeing a pattern. And she’s like, I think I figured out what happened. The men at the Scutari Hospital were ten times more likely to die from an infectious disease than from a war wound. That’s why we failed. It was hygiene. And she was like, Cleanliness is next to godliness.

So she presents all of this analytical data to Queen Victoria. And in 1859, she wrote a book called “Notes on Nursing.” Years go by, and Florence uses the money that Queen Victoria gave her to found the Nightingale School of Nursing, which is the first nursing school in the history of ever? Nursing didn’t exist until Florence Nightingale. Also, when Florence Nightingale is 87 years old, she received the Order of Merit from Queen Victoria, who still is kicking, and is like, This Florence is great! She fixed a bunch of shit. I like her moxie. This was the first time a woman was ever awarded the Order of Merit.

And that’s a big deal. – Are you okay? – Yeah, I burped. – I know. That looked aggressive. – It was not an aggressive burp. – I mean, aggressive as in, like, I wanna make sure you’re not gonna throw up. Okay? – You know I–I’m a lady. – Oh. Curtsy. – C–curtsy. Okay, you ready? So Florence Nightingale was responsible for pioneering an industry and giving women a job and a purpose that they weren’t allowed at that time. So what she did was really extraordinary. And it’s amazing. 159 years later, her book is still used in hospitals today. My math is not good. It might be 170-something. – Remember, it’s 2019. – Okay, I don’t like math. I want you to do it. Not because you’re a man. Well, kind of. – Uh…. .

As found on Youtube

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 (3/5) Movie CLIP – Snape’s Memories (2011) HD

Don’t ignore me Severus (Harmonia Nectere Passus) We both know that Lord Voldemort has ordered the Malfoy boy to murder me But should he fail, I should presume the Dark Lord will turn to you You must be the one to kill me Severus It is the only way Only then will the Dark Lord trust you completely (Avada Kedavra) There will come a time when Harry Potter must be told something But you must wait until Voldemort is at his most vulnerable Must be told what? On the night Lord Voldemort went to Godric’s Hollow, to kill Harry and Lily Potter cast herself between them the curse rebounded (Lily Screaming) When that happened, a part of Voldemort’s soul latched itself to the only living thing it could find Harry himself There’s a reason Harry can speak with snakes There’s a reason he can look into Lord Voldemort’s mind A part of Voldemort lives inside him So, when the time comes, the boy must die? Yes Yes He must die You’ve kept him alive so that he can die at the proper moment You’ve been raising him like a pig for slaughter Don’t tell me now, that you have grown to care for the boy? (Expecto Patronum) Lily After all this time? Always So, when the time comes the boy must die? Yes, he must die and Voldemort himself must do it That is essential

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Strange Things That Happened On The Harry Potter Movie Sets

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The Harry Potter films may be filled with all sorts of fantastic beasts and kooky characters, but they can’t hold an enchanted candle to some of the stranger happenings that took place behind the camera. These are just a few of the weirdest things that happened on the set of the Harry Potter flicks. In a fun scene from Chamber of Secrets, Ron and Harry take an enchanted car to Hogwarts because they missed the Hogwarts Express. Upon arrival, they encounter — read: “crash into” — the Whomping Willow, a magical tree grown a generation before to protect the school from a student who was also a werewolf.

The car was damaged, of course. But it wasn’t the tree’s only victim — at least, not in real life. In reality, many, many cars were used to get the right shots for this scene. Sixteen to be exact. The car model was a 1960 Ford Anglia 105E, a car that, in its heyday, was fairly popular in Britain — over million were produced between 1959 and 1968. Rather than relying on CGI for the car-meets-tree-and-the-tree-wins scene, the special effects team erected an 85-foot-tall physical tree for filming.

They also used 16 real cars for the scene, each of which was specifically altered depending on what the scene required. Movie magic, or just a crap-ton of hard work? You be the judge. “Dad’s gonna kill me.” The plan, at first, was to use the historic Canterbury Cathedral to film the scenes when Harry first enters Hogwarts in The Sorcerer’s Stone. Despite the money Warner Bros. offered, the Dean refused, opposing the film’s “pagan images.” As a result, the project moved to Gloucester Cathedral instead.

Surprisingly, the Dean of Gloucester said that many people commented on the friendliness of the cathedral, and that it would be a perfect setting for a story about a boy making friends at school. Well, the Dean may have been on board, but many local residents were, well… not. In fact, many were downright troubled, resulting in talk of a protest. Many an incensed letter to the editor was received by the Gloucester Citizen, with one especially ticked-off fellow in particular even protesting the sheer fact that a movie would be filmed in the church — “pagan” images or not! An honorary chaplain explained to the BBC that the large hall that would be used for the film was also used for meetings and markets. In other words, the rest of Britain was just fine, and that guy was likely just a crank. Besides, other scenes were filmed at similarly sacred settings, like Durham Cathedral, proving that not every Anglican had a problem with movie crews milling about a House of God. They probably just wanted a chance at the craft services table.

And who wouldn’t? Can you imagine the spread? It must’ve been positively bewitching! Everyone remembers that moment in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone when the kids walk into the Great Hall for the first time, and they look up and see hundreds of candles floating over their heads. It’s our big introduction to Hogwarts, so moviemakers were under a lot of pressure to make the whole scene as impressive as possible. According to The Amazing Book of Movie Trivia, the special effects team used real candles, which they suspended from the ceiling with thin wire. The plan was to remove the wire in post-production — which, if that sounds super tedious, then, yeah, duh-doy it was tedious. The problem, though, was that the candles kept burning through the wires, and then the candles would fall onto the actors’ heads. Now that’s just plain dangerous! Producer Chris Columbus later told Entertainment Weekly that they were able to use the first take of the kids entering the Great Hall, with the camera panning up toward the floating candles.

After that shot, though, it was all over. The special effects team decided it was too much trouble — and probably also too dangerous, plus the whole “tedious” thing — to use real candles. Subsequent takes were done with CGI. Jason Isaacs – who played the despicable, super-blonde, super-evil Lucius Malfoy – is nothing like his alter-ego. Maybe that’s why he felt that he needed to do a little method acting in order to really get into the evil spirit. And what do evil people do when they are trying to get into the evil spirit? They steal stuff, apparently.

Isaacs said in an interview with Bang Showbiz: “I once tried to take a copy of the Daily Prophet because there were thousands of them.” To his credit, the director, David Yates, had given him the impression that he was actually allowed to have the prop — but he was later thwarted by security people who told him Yates wanted it back. Quote, “It was so embarrassing,” Isaacs said. In the end, he reportedly wound up empty-handed. “My sole concern has always been and will always be the welfare of this school and, of course, its students.” According to CinemaBlend, though, Isaacs wasn’t the only one nicking props from the set — the late Alan Rickman, who you’ll recall played Severus Snape, stole a buttload of gold Gringotts on one of the first days of shooting.

That both set a precedent for evil method acting and put security on high alert for prop theft. Just like every kid, actor Rupert Grint — a.k.a. Ron Weasley — always wanted to own an ice cream truck. Well, maybe not every kid wants to own an ice cream truck, but it’s easy to see the appeal of having ready access to an endless supply of that sweet, sweet cold stuff. Anyway, Grint evidently did not outgrow his childhood dream of owning an ice cream truck. So, being the responsible adult he is, he bought one. “Ice cream van?” “Yep, I’ve had that for a while now. It’s something I’ve always, always wanted, as a child. It’s kind of a dream, really.” According to Rupert Grint Press — the foremost authority on Rupert Grint? — one of his first purchases as an uber-loaded superstar was a 1974 Mr. Whippy Bedford van, which he keeps, quote, “well stocked.” Grint once boasted in an interview: “It’s got a proper machine that dispenses Mr. Whippy ice cream and I buy my lollies wholesale … so I never run short.” Grint doesn’t sell ice cream — he’s unlicensed, you see — but he has fun passing it out to kids in the summer.

And on the last day of shooting, he drove the van onto the Harry Potter set, once again bragging: “The cast and crew were having a barbecue and I supplied the lollies and ice creams.” Adorable. Alan Rickman wasn’t the only thespian behind the nominally evil characters in the Harry Potter universe who seemed suspiciously prone to “accidentally” doing evil things on set. We’re sure it’s all just a coincidence that it’s only the evil characters who steal from the set and rupture the eardrums of other actors, but we’ll let you decide. In her role as Bellatrix Lestrange, Helena Bonham Carter had to do a lot of evil things, and one of the most evil was perpetrated on co-star Matthew Lewis’ eardrum. Carter was menacing Lewis’ character Neville Longbottom with her wand when she decided that she needed to try on an especially sadistic brand of menacing. She told Entertainment Weekly: “I thought I could brandish the wand like a sort of Q-tip and clean out his ear. Sort of torture it.” Turns out, Lewis moved in exactly the wrong direction while Carter’s wand was in his ear, and she ended up perforating the young actor’s eardrum.

She later confessed, quote, “He didn’t admit to me that he actually had some internal bleeding about three days later.” Happily, the damage wasn’t permanent. Still, Carter wasn’t above admitting to Entertainment Weekly that she may have, quote, ” sadism a bit too literally.” Yeah — we’d have to agree with that take. Children aren’t exactly known for professional discretion — yes, even children who play Harry Potter characters. If you’ve ever drawn a rude picture of an authority figure when you were a kid, you’ll be able to relate to this one. On the set of one of the early films, Rupert Grint recalled drawing an “unpretty” picture of Alan Rickman as Professor Snape. According to the Independent, Alan Rickman was standing right behind the young actor the entire time.

“I drew this rather unpretty of Alan Rickman, and, as I was drawing it, Alan Rickman was standing right behind me.” “And I was so scared,” Can you say “Avada Kedavra?” Now, if this had been an actual scene shot for any other movie, the authority figure would have snatched up the picture, scowled at it, and sentenced the offender to detention — or, if Snape’s track record is any indication, an alarmingly over-the-top assignment. “And on my desk by Monday morning, two rolls of parchment on the werewolf with particular emphasis on recognizing it.” But according to the Independent, Rickman did the opposite — he was actually a good sport about it. In fact he was such a good sport that he took it home as a keepsake. Rickman would later recall the drawing, admitting: “I’d made him sign it. I have it in my possession. And I’m very fond of it.” We’re not crying! You’re crying! So just in case you needed another reminder that young people are not known for their professional discretion, here’s Unprofessional Behavior Example #2, also involving Rupert Grint, who really seemed to have a hard time abandoning the childish antics even as he got older.

We can sort of understand what was going through his head in this particular incident, though, because when you’re a kid and you’ve grown up on a movie set with a lot of other kids, they become almost like your siblings. And then one day you’re all grown up and, oh god, one of your friends has to kiss the other one, and… Gag! Barf! So yeah, that’s basically how it went.

According to Digital Spy, Rupert Grint couldn’t stop himself from cracking up while filming Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part One as co-stars Daniel Radcliffe and Emma Watson went in for, quote, “a pretty violent kiss.” Radcliffe later told WENN that Grint was, quote, “laughing so much off camera he was asked to leave the set.” Apparently, he was laughing so hard that his eyes were watering. Not a good look for a scene where Grint’s face is supposed to look like, well… this: “What are you, compared to the chosen one?” “Ron, it’s lying!” “Your mother confessed she would have preferred me as a son.” So that’s pretty juvenile, Rupert.

Why don’t you go hang out quietly in your ice cream truck for a while? It’s hard to imagine stoic Severus Snape and always-composed Albus Dumbledore pulling pranks, and it’s even harder to imagine Severus Snape and Albus Dumbledore pulling pranks that involve farting — but in the world of Harry Potter, pretty much anything is possible. According to Cosmopolitan, Alan Rickman and Michael Gambon decided to prank Daniel Radcliffe while filming a scene for Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. In the scene, pretty much every Hogwarts student is asleep in a sleeping bag in the Great Hall, and Dumbledore is waxing poetic while pressing the remote button for a fart machine he’s put inside Daniel Radcliffe’s sleeping bag. “Y’know, it’s completely our own world, and we like to — we like to swim in the deepest waters.” And it’s the Great Hall, of course, so the farts are bouncing off the walls and echoing all over the room, and pretty soon everyone is laughing, even stoic Snape and always-composed Dumbledore. “They had put a fart machine inside my sleeping bag.” “This hall echoed, like — ” “And Michael Gambon had actually been pressing it during the take, I found out.” And that, ladies and gentlemen, is the most awesome Harry Potter scene you never saw.

Check out one of our newest videos right here! Plus, even more Grunge videos about your favorite stuff are coming soon. Subscribe to our YouTube channel and hit the bell so you don’t miss a single one. .

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Harry Battles Voldemort – Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (4/5) Movie CLIP (2005) HD

I’m going to destroy you. After tonight, No one will ever again Question my powers. After tonight, if they speak of you, They’ll speak only of how you… Begged For death. And I, Being a merciful lord… Obliged. Get up! Don’t you turn your back on me, harry potter! I want you to look at me when I kill you! I want to see the light Leave your eyes! Have it your way.

Expelliarmus! Avada kedavra! Do nothing! He’s mine to finish! He’s mine! Harry, when the connection Is broken, You must get to the portkey. We can linger for a moment to give you some time, But only a moment. Do you understand? .

As found on Youtube

Top 10 Scary Harry Potter Theories

Say my name Siri. RIGHT. I might be wearing Hufflepuff yellow today but I am a Slytherin Queen and do not forget it. Hello and welcome back to the Most amazing top 10 channel on the internet – I am your host Rebecca Felgate and today we are talking about the Top 10 Scary Harry Potter Theories. Those of you who know me KNOW that I love Harry Potter. I have a million harry potter videos on my own channel and ever chance I get to do a Most Amazing video on the Wizarding World I absolutely wil! Before I get into todays video I want to talk about something awesome – our video sponsor GEEK GEER! We have teamed up with geek gear wizardry to get you 20% off their month subscription box which is filled with exclusive hand crafted Harry Potter Products.

I have a box right here and I am gonna show you what is in mine! If you like what you saw check out our discount link in the description box Okay so back to the video – guys leave me a comment and let me know what your Hogwarts house is – I wanna see lion, eagle snake and badger emojis all up in my comments grill! Also please do thumbs up this video and share it with a friend who loves Harry Potter. Links in the description box. OKAY! 10 – Ginny Was Doping Harry Right. Ginny and Harry. A problem for the ages.

Let’s get real for a second… Does Harry fancy Ginny? Like truly actually? Ginny meets Harry in book one, but it is in book two – The Chamber of Secrets – where we find out that Ginny is desperately in love with Harry, and why not? He is a famous older wizard…and he is pretty moody too and that whole broody act is like a moth to a flame when it comes to teenage girls. But, Harry never shows ANY interest in Ginny until the sixth book, The Half Blood Prince, which is a book that is heavily focused on potions. HEAVILY. We know that Voldemort was born of a witch who doped a muggle with Amortentia – a love potion mentioned by Slughorn in Harry’s year 6 potions class. Hmm. Funny it is that year he actually seems bothered when Ginny gets a boyfriend.

He didn’t give two hoots about Ravenclaw Student Michael Croner when they were hooking up….but when Ginny dramatically starts going out with Dean Thomas right under Harry’s nose, suddenly he has forgotten all about his previous enduring love of Cho Chang. JK Rowling herself said Hermione and Harry should have got together – does Ginny encourage Hermione to get with her brother in order to keep her out of the way? Well, with this theory I would like to think Ginny wouldn’t turn to doping, having been a victim of Tom Riddle’s thrall in Book 2, but Harry’s attitude change dramatically in book 6. The reason can’t just be her glow up. Can it? This is actually a scary theory turned scarier fact…. 9 – Wizards Poo For a long time, people have been speculating about wizarding waste.

Do wizards poo like us mere muggles? Well, the fact that Moaning Mertyl lives in Ubend suggests that maybe she doesn’t see that much action led some to suspect that wizards don’t go to loo like we do. Sure, Hermione loves a good cry in the toilets, but does she ever pee in them? The no pop theory was actually tackled by JK Rowling who revealed that, yeah, Wizards do go…. But she also revealed something awful. In a post on Pottermore, Rowling revealed that before the muggle invention of plumbing, Wizards use to relieve themselves wherever and whenever they needed to go and just vanished the evidence. This has opened up a whole new theory can of worms which is – where does all the vanished wizarding waste go? So far as we are aware wizards cant cease to make things exist… so there must be a really dark place, darker than the dark side of Quirrell’s turban, filled with ancient wizard poo. 8 – Mrs Norris is Mrs Filch Is Mrs Norris Filch’s Wife? Urm.

Possible. This is a theory dragged up from Tumblr, the cesspool of internet theories, and it was posted by Yoyospaghettiyo. They said that Mr Filch used to have a Mrs filch but she was an illegal animagus who went through a bad transformation. They say this explains why Filch loves Mrs Norris so much and why he is so cranky… he’s just frustrated…. Err.. we hope! 7 – Harry Made The Dursley’s Awful I think we can all agree that the Dursley’s were the worst. Of course they were. But was it Harry’s fault? This theory says yes. So the big reveal many of us saw coming in Book 7 – Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – was that Harry himself is a horcrux, a tiny fragment of Voldemort soul lived within him allowing the dark wizard to be invincible.

Having a horcrux around tends to send wizards mad a la Gollum and the Ring style. Ron was around a Horcrux – the Slytherin Locket – and it sent him preeeetty mad. Ginny also didn’t fare too well from being around Riddle’s diary…so…Imagine how the Dursley’s felt being around Harry for a constant 11 years and then every summer. They were cranky because part of Harry was evil and it was making them awful…it wasn’t really their fault. 6 – Dumbledore’s Death Prediction Trelawney. Mental, right? Well… maybe not! She did indeed make THE prophecy, and she has said things throughout the Harry potter series that have ended up making sense. For those paying attention, she actually predicted Dumbledore’s death LONG before he died.

It all went down in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and no one noticed. Professor Trelawany came to the great hall during the Christmas Feast but wouldn’t sit down…she says this: If I join the table, we shall be thirteen! Nothing could be more unlucky! Never forget that when thirteen dine together, the first to rise will be the first to die.” BUT the thing is there were already 13 people at the table – scabbers, blooming Peter Petigrew – was hiding in Ron’s pocket. Who was the first to rise then? Dumbledore. AND SHE DOES IT AGAIN! In chapter five of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, 13 people dined together at Grimauld Place, and Sirius Black was the first to rise. 5 – Voldemort’s Boggart We know a lot about Boggarts from Harry’s third year defence against the Dark Arts class. We know Neville’s is professor Snape, Hermione’s is failure, Harry’s is Demontors, Ron’s is Spiders… Bogarts are what a person fears most.

So, what scares the most fearsome wizard of them all, Lord Voldemort? He is the bringer of nightmares and death, after all. There has been a lot of speculation as to what Lord Voldemort’s Boggart may be. The internet seems to have settled on death, seeing as Tom Riddle was so afraid of death he split his soul to make himself immortal. What kind of death scene Lord Voldemort would see….well…it would surely be horrifying to look at! 4 – Snape Blames Neville So speaking of Neville’s Boggart being Snape…have you ever wondered why Snape was so mean to him? Like Snape is mean to everyone but he particularly hates Harry and Neville. While we know that Snape hates Harry – he’s a product of James and Lily and he loved Lily and hated James.

Sure, sure… although we also know he died protecting Harry because of his love of Lily, so it is complicated … but what is his beef with Neville? Apparently, according to a dark theory, he hates Neville because his parents are alive – in Saint Mungos and irreparably damaged, sure, but alive. Snape thinks that had Bellatrix been the one to go and get Harry after the prophecy, she would have left the potters alive – which means Snape’s love wouldn’t be gone. In a roundabout way, Snape blames Neville.

Urrrgh I am calling this a theory because part of me really doesn’t wasn’t to canonize anything spewed out by The Cursed Child… I loved the visuals of the play don’t get me wrong, Stephen Hoggart and John Tiffany are kings…. But like come on…. So with that in mind at number 3 we have Bellatrix and Voldemort’s Love Affair. We know that Voldemort is incapable of love, having been born of a love potion and grown up without care, but it seems he found time to fulfill a few desires with crazy old Bellatrix.

According to the appearance of Delphi in The Cursed Child – the Dark Lord and one of the nastiest witches of all time, murder of the Weasley twins, Bellatrix Le Strange got it ON….and it was happening under our noses in the books! Bellatrix and Voldemort are killed in the Battle of Hogwarts and wasn’t just baby Teddy that was left orphaned, it seems baby Delphi was too. Any hearts gonna bleed for the baby of the dark lord? Or is she doomed for a life of evil biddings even before she gets started? 2 – Voldemort is Harry’s Brother And so is snape… or so it seems. There is a more complicated theory out there that suggests that Harry, Snape and Voldemort are the three brothers in the Tale of the Beedle and the Bard. This one was posted on Reddit by popsicle incorporated 4 years ago and got over 750 upvotes. The y say in the tale Dumbledore is death and a combination of all of the brothers, Tom Riddle slash Voldemort is the brother drunk on power and vengeance that ultimately leads to his demise, Snape is the brother obsessed with resurrection because of his love of Lily, which ultimately leads to HIS Demise, and Harry is the wise brother who had a knack for hiding from death, and the only time he comes close is when he willing chooses it – which is like the brother who greeted Death like an old friend.

The theory was actually well liked by JK Rowling who said she was touched the Dumbledore was seen as death. Side note, Landon thought that Harry and Voldemort were ACTUALLY brothers…which lol. . 1 – Draco is a Werewolf We know Draco Malfoy went weird in the Half Blood Prince. No longer was he your classic energetic school bully, he had become insular, dark and kind of murderous.

We assume the reason is because he is being groomed by Voldey, but actually there is a darker theory. There is an internet theory that says Draco had been bitten by Fenir Greyback when Lucius isn’t able to get Lord Voldy the prophecy. Apparently lending evidence to this scary theory, at one point Voldy says to Draco, “maybe you can babysit the cubs” when talking about Remus and Lupin’s future kids. Also, quizzically, J.K. Rowling mentioned that in a scene in the third movie, there was a moment in which Draco was supposed to impersonate a werewolf…. Was this foreshadowing?! Does Draco get away scott free after the battle of Hogwarts or is his punishment having to live a double life, with his oh so pure blood polluted?! So that was the Top 10 Scary Harry potter theories! Which did you find the scariest – let me know in the comments section down below! Do you have any other theories? I would LOVE to hear them! Don’t forget to let me know what your Hogwarts house is.Shout out to all the snakes joining me In the dungeon.

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The Perfect Mother – SNL

>>> BABE? BABE. CAN YOU JUST LIKE GIVE ME LIKE A MINUTE? >> JULIA. >> DAD. >> LET’S GIVE MOMMY AND GRANNY A MINUTE. >> THANK YOU. >> YEAH, OF COURSE. >> THERE YOU GO. >> MOM. I DON’T KNOW HOW YOU DID IT. >> DID WHAT, HONEY? >> RAISED ME WITHOUT GOING INSANE. I MEAN, LOOK AT ME. I’M A MESS. BUT YOU. YOU WERE JUST LIKE A PERFECT MOTHER. >> NO, I WASN’T. >> YES, YOU WERE. YOU WERE ALWAYS SO CALM AND SWEET WITH ME. >> THAT’S BECAUSE EVERY MOMENT WAS A JOY. >> . SLEEP! >> I DON’T EVEN REMEMBER YOU EVER YELLING AT ME. >> HOW COULD I YELL AT THIS FACE? >> OH, MY GOD, LOOK WHAT YOU DID TO THE TV! DID YOU JUST PUT PAINT ALL OVER THE TV? >> I JUST NEED A BREAK SOMETIMES. LIKE I’M COMPLETELY OVERWHELMED. DID YOU EVER FEEL LIKE THAT? >> IF I DID, I DON’T REMEMBER. ♪ HAPPY BIRTH ♪ >> I CAN BARELY MANAGE TO TAKE A SHOWER EVERY OTHER DAY. BUT YOU WERE ALWAYS SO PUT TOGETHER. >> ENJOYING THE SHOW, CHERYL? >> HELL, NO. >> YOU WERE PERFECT. I MEAN, EVEN WHEN I WAS A TEENAGER AND YOU WERE SUPPOSED TO HATE YOUR MOM, YOU WERE GREAT.

YOU NEVER JUDGED ME. YOU NEVER PRIED. >> WELL, IT WAS NONE OF MY BUSINESS. >> COMPARED TO YOU, I FEEL LIKE I’M NOT GOOD AT THIS. >> YOU ARE EVERY BIT THE MOTHER I WAS AND THEN SOME. MAYBE YOU FEEL LIKE THIS INSIDE, BUT OUTSIDE, YOU COME ACROSS AS SO RELAXED. >> WELL, I TRY NOT TO GET WORKED UP ABOUT THE LITTLE STUFF. >> WHY DIDN’T YOU PACK THE GODDAMN GIRAFFE? >> YOU SAID, “PACK A TOY!” >> I MEANT A GIRAFFE! >> YOU SAID — >> SHH. >> HEY, BABY. >> IT SEEMS LIKE YOU AND NICK STILL FIND TIME TO, YOU KNOW. >> MOM. I’LL JUST SAY THAT IN THE BEDROOM WE ARE STILL VERY MUCH A MARRIED COUPLE.

> SORRY. >> YOU ARE DOING AN AMAZING JOB. JUST REMEMBER TO CHERISH EVERY MOMENT. BECAUSE EACH DAY WITH YOUR CHILD IS SPECIAL. >> NICK, CAN YOU COME HELP ME? SHE BLEW OUT HER DIAPER. >> WHAT? >> SHE HAS ALL THE WAY UP HER BACK. >> OH, THAT’S UP TO HER NECK. >> AND EACH DAY YOU’LL EXPERIENCE SOMETHING NEW AND WONDERFUL. >> DR. KLEIN, MY DAUGHTER ATE TWO CRAYONS. >> NO, FIVE. >> SORRY, FIVE CRAYONS. DO WE NEED TO BRING HER IN? >> THIS IS EXACTLY WHAT I NEEDED TO HEAR. SEE? YOU ARE A PERFECT MOTHER. >> SO ARE YOU, HONEY. YOU HAVE POOP IN YOUR HAIR. >> OH. .

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Kourtney Kardashian Reveals Kim’s Baby Bombshell to Kris Jenner

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Most Hilarious & Shocking ‘Family Reunion’ Intros ft. Chance the Rapper | Wild ‘N Out | MTV

https://www.30days.com/summit?cf_affiliate_id=1437605&affiliate_id=1437605

  • This my cousin Hachrachpkch, his name I’m still learning, but y’all give it up for the (beep) who sell me my turban, – At the family reunion (ding) (upbeat hip hop music) – We introducing – This is Iz my uncle and his wife Shanice, when the police come around her wig is where I hide my weed – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? –
  • My cousins are so thick That every man wanna claim ’em, but fellas don’t be fooled, they’re really wearing a waist trainer – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? –
  • This my cousin, she fine as she could be but now I’m pissed she get more (beep) than me – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – This is my brother Terrence and I was looking for him searching he look just like Nick Cannon especially when he wears a turban – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out –
  • Who we introducing? – This right here is crazy ’cause ain’t nothing what it seems but I’d like to introduce you to the Puerto Rican Chico Bean – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – This is his Ec teacher from 2003 – She gave me an A because I gave her some good D – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – This is a cougar and she’s gonna spend the night – So y’all give it up, it’s a real housewife for the civil rights – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – This my aunt and uncle and they drove here from Aurora, after years of trying to smash Urkel finally got Myra – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – Look, I’m a little confused and I’m not gon’ even lie ’cause wait, if Conceited right there then who is this guy? – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introucing? – This right here’s my auntie but she don’t really come around ’cause she’s legally blind, POP, hold it down – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – This is my momma Tiny and she was in ex-cape but I’m too scared to tell her I spent all the money she made – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – My cousin is so fine, she’s so damn cute you won’t believe but fellas don’t be fooled, I think she’s really wearing a weave (cheering) (bell dings repeatedly) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – I can’t believe she’s here, my legendary cousin – She tried to hide on the ground, give it up for Miss Harriet Tubman – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introucing? – My cousin too short, I can’t get him to switch I said “these some fine ladies” but his favorite word’s – Bitch – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – And this my cousin Sara and I just bought her these glasses, you could tell we’re cousins ’cause we both have flat asses – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – This my cousin Chris and this summer he got fatter but don’t he look like Carl Winslow from the Family Matters? – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – These are my two cousins, I’m excited and I love it give it up for the real housewives of the Dominican Republic – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – This my cousin Jasmine and I’mma let you people know her hat is blown out ’cause she likes driving with her head out the window – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – This is just my friend, I think his name is David, please when you go to the club stop telling (beep) that we related – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – This my brother Chris and his ex-girl, her name is Venus and she told me they broke up ’cause his nose was bigger than his penis – At the family reunion (ding) – Wild ‘N Out – Who we introducing? – Nick, you like ’em older, so I got you a special treat – Hey – She’s a freak in the bed and she can even take out her teeth – At the family reunion – Give her a kiss Nick! Mwah! (cheering) upbeat hip-hop music

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The Curious Death of Vincent Van Gogh

this week on BuzzFeed unsolved we take a look at the death of Vincent van Gogh long thought to be suicide but as recent writings may suggest may actually be murder excuse me what we’re gonna cover a murder on this show no but if a man who long thought to have taken his own life I mean he was a bit eccentric and had a history of bodily harm so maybe people assumed it was suicide but there are some things in here that at least for me yeah are fairly convincing that it may be something a little bit more sinister well I’m here for it what you know about go you know he’s a Dutch guy paint a lot you know very dreamy cut off his ear you did that self-portrait you know yeah you do a selfie all right we’re done here that is case closed no we got him we got Monday all right season finale let’s do it baby let’s get into it Vincent Willem van Gogh was born on March 30th 1853 in zunda Netherlands he was the oldest surviving child of the odorous van Gogh and Anna Carr Bendis Vincent would eventually have five younger siblings the one he would formed the closest relationship with being his brother Theo despite his good grades Vincent left secondary school before graduating at age 16 he began his art career as an apprentice with goo peel and see an international art dealer where his uncle was a partner Vincent first worked for goo peel in The Hague then in London and finally in Paris where he was dismissed from the company in 1876 two days after his 23rd birthday kind of a double-edged sword back then because it’s neat that you can just jump into an apprenticeship at age 16 like yeah I’m probably gonna be a legend in the art field I’ll do that you could still do that today though I feel like people start apprenticeships quite young but they don’t really do like it’s 16 yeah I remember applying for an apprenticeship at Warner Bros at 16 how’d that turn out I didn’t get it hmm so I hope you’re watching this now and know what you missed out on Jack Warner Jack in 1881 after five years of wandering Europe and bouncing between dead-end jobs such as lay preacher Vincent moved back in with his parents who worried about their sons lack of direction in life bo who had also gone to work for the art dealer goopy landsea but had risen through the ranks to become a manager began sending his older jobless brother money for the next few years Vincent would move out for periods but returned to his parents home it’s interesting because nowadays people you know people get to age like 24 and they’re like I just don’t want to know I don’t know what I want to be in life well it is kind of funny that he is this 19th century millennial just wandering around yeah not really sure what his purpose is and if Vincent van this is a this is an aspirational tale for all you out there if Vincent van Gogh is going through this similar struggle you know you can make something of yourself just out there with his brush saying I’ll put this on something you put in front of me I’ll put it to it that I feel like yeah where’d that big no no it’s probably exactly what he said to people I’ll put the songs give me a job I’ll put this on so I’ll put this on something you put it in front of me I’ll put it to it in 1884 Vincent now in his 30s wanted to start paying Theo back for all the support he had given him over the years Vincent began sending his paintings to do in Paris for him to sell unfortunately for all parties Vincent’s work was not what the people of parents were looking for I always wondered about this when it comes to famous artists obviously it took them usually decades to find what made them famous wouldn’t you say that the paintings like their early drafts when they really sucked wouldn’t those be worth more cuz it’s like seeing the journey is worth more but the probably worth a lot like a year one van Gogh yeah I feel like that when you say it that way it sounds like it should be it’s a little shit yeah a little hmm I didn’t know he had a year one Van Gogh in his house I know he was doing that well that’s pretty good it looks like shit but you know there’s a lot of that out of there for Picasso he’s got a lot of really stuff out though Pablo yeah him oh you’re not talking the other Picasso Ted Picasso over the next five years Vincent’s life would appear to once again be mired by folly as he started a failed art collective and continued his nomadic habitation of Europe during this period however the style now associated with Vincent began to take form the tones used in his paintings began to light it he developed his characteristic style of using short brushstrokes and he moved to brighter more colorful subjects such as portraits often self-portraits and city scenes unfortunately for Vincent the progress of his art happened during a time of declining mental health culminating in late 1888 when Vincent famously severed his own ear and wrapped it up as a present for a sex worker the day after this eerie occurrence like that one Vincent was admitted to the hospital where he stayed until early 1889 for the next few months Vincent struggled with his mental health eventually checking himself into a psychiatric hospital in May during his one-year stay at the hospital Vincent made some of his most famous masterpieces in his first week there he started painting the irises in the asylums garden while Vincent considered the paintings merely a study irises is considered one of his most iconic pieces the starry night now one of the most famous paintings in the world depicts the view from a window in the asylum enhanced by Vincent’s imagination in January of 1890 Theo and his wife welcomed their newborn son Vincent Willem van Gogh into the world named after the infant’s uncle Vincent sent them his famous painting almond blossom from the hospital as a gift for his new nephew all told while in the asylum Vincent made about 150 paintings and by 1890 his work was finally being exhibited in receiving positive reviews I don’t know if I agree with this narrative all the time where art needs to come from this like darker place of misery or maybe like turmoil yeah within your head you don’t need to be troubled to make good art it happens but I think I think intense emotion or introspection can obviously fuel it yeah like a breakup or a death yeah but it is weird that great art is often not appreciated when it comes out it’s true why that is I mean a lot of it is you know well maybe because like the artist mind is more enhanced at that moment and the world is not ready for it yet so they’re ahead of me that could be after being released from the mental hospital in Maine Vincent moved to overshare wass an area with other artists not far from Paris which allowed for him to easily visit Theo’s family in Paris on one such visit in July Theo told his brother he was considering starting his own business this news greatly unsettled Vincent who not only felt like a burden to his brother who was still supporting Vincent but also worried about the impact of Theo taking this gamble on his own finances after lunch on July 27th 1890 Vincent left the Revo Inn where he was staying in ovair with his easel and painting supplies it was a warm evening so the inn keepers and guests were enjoying dinner outside after sunset when Vincent returned he shuffled past without exchanging any words he also noted Lee had none of the belongings he left with and had his jacket buttoned all the way up despite the heat he clutched his abdomen and limped up the stairs to his room Gustave Ravel the owner of the inn went to check on Vincent the artist was curled up in his bed and when Gustav asked him what was the matter Vincent replied quote I wounded myself and quilt he lifted his clothing to reveal a bullet hole under his ribs that said it is said one thing to note from this is it’s a bit odd that he would take all of his painting supplies in his easel out only to then kill himself and then walk back with none if they like why not just leave all that stuff in your apartment if that was what your plan was who knows how these things creep up on a person that is true well we’re gonna get into it more in the theories okay bill arrived midday on the 28th to find Vincent in bed smoking Vincent van Gogh died just after midnight cradled by his brother after telling him quote I want to die like this and quote at just 37 years old Vincent’s life and career was over leaving behind nearly 1300 works of art on paper and more than 850 paintings with no autopsy ever conducted the exact location of the shooting never identified and a five-hour period between the time he left the inn and when he returned unaccounted for it’s time to dive into some theories the first and prevailing theory is that Vincent was in trouble genius who shot himself in a wheat field according to aniline Revo that then 13 year old daughter of the inn owner Gustav quote Vincent had gone toward the wheat field where he had painted before during the afternoon as my father understood it Vincent shot himself and fainted the coolness of the night revived him on all fours he looked for the gun to finish himself off but he could not find it then Vincent got up and climbed down the hillside to return to our house and quote hmm yeah I could see that oftentimes when people commit suicide the weapons right there the means is right there there’s usually a note it’s very odd to be like shoot myself now let’s go hide this gun yeah I mean it’s a weed field you know I don’t know how dense those are but unless he tossed the gun which maybe he did at the same time how thorough of a search do you think he’s doing if he is currently bleeding out well you’ll also come to find that no one else could find the gun either interesting now do you understand why I think that’s so weird now I understand right perhaps no one was more adamant about this theory than Vincent himself witnesses recalled Vincent saying quote I wounded myself in the fields I shot myself with a revolver there and quote he was emphatic saying quote do not accuse anyone it is I who wanted to kill myself end quote witnesses did say however that Vincent appeared confused as he lay dying replying to the police’s question of did you intend to commit suicide with quote I think so and would Vincent had also in the past morbidly joked about suicide he once told Theo he would quote cease to be end quote if he ever felt that he had become a burden or a nuisance to his brother could his fear of complicating his soon-to-be unemployed brother’s life have driven him to kill himself one and while this story is the one Vincent seemingly wanted the world to hear there are some glaring issues with it for one Vincent was shot in the abdomen below his ribs which is an odd position to take if he had been aiming for his heart additionally the fact that the bullet did not exit Vincent’s body suggests there was some distance between Vincent and the gun more distance than Vincent could have achieved on his own it’s also suspicious that Vincent allegedly dropped the gun so far out of reach that when he came to he couldn’t find it to finish the job what’s more if he had actually passed out four hours after shooting himself his wound would have been much bloodier than it was when he returned to the inn so if he did shoot himself it would have been larger yeah because it had been so much time till when he got to the inn it suggests that it happened sooner than he said it did or like he was getting his theory that he fell asleep woke back up came to the inn it would have been so much bigger yeah so they’re saying like he probably got shot right away then walked to the end which would also explain then why he carried out his art supplies because he didn’t go oh yeah getting shots in the plans today right so you know it makes sense okay apart from the heart to explain ballistics no one knows where Vincent would have obtained the gun revolvers were very rare in Auvers at the time and no one would admit to selling or lending Vincent a gun the next day no one was able to find a gun where Vincent purportedly did the deed all of Vincent’s painting gear too seemed to have vanished all his painting gear yes from where he left it in the fields mm-hmm so no gun none of the paint stuff that he walked out with yeah all the other stuff that I just mentioned do you think someone was aware that this was Vinnie’s stuff and was like I’ll get a pretty penny for this feel like we would have seen it by now I mean frankly people at BuzzFeed’s steal lunches out of the fridges all the time you don’t think someone was just like hey free stuff true someone did steal some of this stuff from our set yeah some of loose stuff from around here all the more precious props you think we don’t notice that come here curse timmy’s ball is gone yeah this is this is this is a fake this is a sham this is a fake ball this isn’t timmy’s someone stole Timmy’s ball what if Timmy came back and took it I thought about that but on things you did in addition to the questions the physical evidence raises Vincent was a religious man who condemned suicide calling it wicked and a demonstration of moral cowardice at one point prior to his death he even said quote I really do not think I am a man with such inclinations end quote any time he did have thoughts of suicide it was always by way of drowning saying quote I can understand people drowning themselves end quote suicide is wrong I do not understand it it’d be pretty baller to drown it’s just a weird thing to just tack on as a button at the end of it yeah cuz drowning arguably seems like the main force but why is it more morally sound I’ve heard that it is agony Oh God did you really just sneak a prestige quote and I don’t know vo also found no evidence that Vincent was planning on killing himself finding no suicide note but instead drafts of letters on his desk that he surely didn’t want anyone to read with so many loose ends in the suicide Theory it’s time to look at another hypothesis this one posited by biographer Steven nayfeh and Gregory white Smith nayfeh and spent suggest Vincent was shot by some local boys and that Vincent protected their identities to begin it’s worth going back to get a better picture of what life was like for Vincent in ‘auvairs he was known to be quite eccentric and when he would approach people in the street to ask if they would sit for him most people retreated his appearance didn’t help matters with wild hair ratty clothes and you know a missing ear as is often the case the worst bullies were the teenage boys they would pretend to be nice to the artist to gain his trust then pull pranks on him like throwing salt in his coffee rubbing chili pepper on a dry paintbrush Vince intended to suck and putting a snake in his box of painting supplies boys the way they are yeah what a nerd god I’d love to just transport them here and be like hey you know that guy who I put a funny snake in smile but you know you put some salt in his car museum he’s he’s the museum that you’re standing in front of the museum yeah I can’t believe boys would be that mean to a funny old man I could believe it teenage boys are the worst I remember being obnoxious as a team yeah it’s inevitable if you’re pranking a stranger I find it not as funny it’s just me that just means it’s just me and this is me one of the boys who would tease Vincent was Rene secreto who said quote our favorite game was making him angry which was easy end quote look I read his face is getting Rene’s older brother Gaston was an aspiring artist who like to hear Vincent’s tales of the Parisian art world Vincent figured Rene was just something he had to endure in order to have a friendship with Gaston Rene unlike his brother had no interest in art instead enjoying fishing and hunting after seeing Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show in Paris Rene came back to ‘auvairs with a full outfit of western clothes complete with fringe coat cowboy boots and added a 380 caliber pistol Vincent started calling Rene Buffalo Pihl a mispronunciation of Buffalo Bill due to his accent which only angered the boy more I love it I love Vincent getting back at him because I’m sure this guy just showed up and Van Gogh was just like oh Buffalo Bill and it was like I just said he’s puffle Oh pills pull off those pistols bins oh what a burn walked I love that kid taking his hat off slamming on the ground stomping on it so to hear him get a little win in there prank war I love it that’s Gregg’s me happy in their book Ben go to life authors neethu and Smith speculate that the secretaries quarreled with Vincent around a farmyard on Boucher Road they may have accidentally fired the gun striking Vincent in his abdomen Vincent then stumbled back towards the end where he covered for the boys the boys in shock at what they had done may have collected Vincent’s belongings and fled the same destroying what evidence might remain it seems plausible one because he’s a sweet man yes and clearly he put up with his bullying for a long time so they’re being very cruel to him and he’s still just kind of like hey that’s just how it goes a relationship with one of the Brotherhood and that’s the other thing if he’s close with Gaston then maybe he doesn’t want to point fingers to Rene yeah cuz it’s gonna ruin their life it’s devastating thing yeah I buy it I think I could get behind this the theory is supported by the fact that multiple witnesses saw Vincent leave the inn and head towards the hamlet of Shaban ball and not towards the fields where he claimed he’d been painting that road leads to a spot and was where Rene enjoyed fishing it’s possible Rene and his brother met Vincent on their way back from wass went to a nearby farmyard and then the boys accidentally shot the artist that would also make it easier for Vincent to get back to the inn with a bullet in his stomach as opposed to a steep mile long trek back from the wheat fields this theory would explain a lot of things the suicide story does not such as the odd entry point of the bullet the lack of suicide note why Vincent took his painting equipment to kill himself why all that gear and the gun could not be found and why he didn’t shoot himself in the head they don’t think that Rene would have been so upset about the cloud about the cowboy about that puffle oh yeah that he would I would hope not see that and that makes this story get a different kind of turn yeah still sweet of him to cover but I really really don’t want to accept the fact that maybe Rene did shoot him on purpose in the wake of the shooting Rene Gaston and their father left town when they returned Rene who rarely traveled anywhere without his pissed no longer had the gun when asked about it decades later Rene said Vincent stole it from him in the 1930s as Vincent’s work was beginning to gain notoriety townspeople told an art historian that young boys shot Vincent on accident and that Vincent protected their identities for fear they’d be accused of murder still largely due to Irving stones 1934 novelization of Vincent’s life and death and the 1956 movie that followed the idea of Vincent van Gogh being a tortured genius who took his own life crystallized in the public consciousness in a story that may feel familiar for those of us in our 20s and 30s Vincent spent much of his life looking for a purpose trying to find a path that could at once fulfill himself while also bringing joy to others what he didn’t know at the time of his death was that his work would be beloved by generations inspiring countless others to pursue their life’s true purpose what he did know at the time of his death was how that fateful bullet found a home inside his abdomen but as for the rest of us that truth will remain unsolved well that’s a lovely little story I got to be honest I didn’t think that the alternative would be a little bit heartwarming yeah I would say so II would it definitely paints a different image completely of him in my mind because I like most of the public did think he was a tortured genius in his own life but this paints him has a very empathetic understanding man the underlying theme being human kindness yeah not bad it’s a good thing to try take it for a world yeah it’s definitely a good way to end the season Oh see we don’t agree on anything but right now maybe we like this move so you all take a cue from this and we’re all gonna be golden

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